The white-tailed deer is found in every state in the United States except perhaps Alaska and Utah. It occurs throughout the southern provinces of Canada, across the United States, and on into Central and South America. The white-tailed deer is the most popular big game species in North America. Mule deer are common throughout western Canada, western United States, and into Mexico. There are several subspecies of both deer and each is found is specific regional areas.
Deer are creatures of the forest edge rather than the dense, old-growth forest. They thrive in agricultural areas interspersed with woodlots and riparian habitat. They favor early successional stages which keep brush and sapling browse within reach. Dense cover is used for winter shelter and protection. The encroachment of woody plants, because of suppressed natural fire, has increased the available suitable habitat for white-tailed deer. However, in areas that have noxious woody plants, habitat management is necessary to maintain or restore good deer habitat.